Music: language we all speak ielts reading ã©â€ºâ€¦ã¦â‚¬â

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In the Academic Reading practice test, Eco-Resort Management Practices, TV Addiction 1, Music: Language We all Speak there are 40 questions of various question types. We at kemhamysophie.com would urge every IELTS aspirant to time this test as in the real exam và find the answers without looking at the key. If you have scored 40/40, then we wish you all the best. If you haven’t, then we would earnestly advise you lớn take one of our IELTS reading practice tests.

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Here are question types in this reading test

Reading Passage 1 (Eco-Resort Management Practices):

Multiple Choice questions,Summary completion

Reading Passage 2 (TV Addiction 1):

True/False/Not Given questions,Matching features,Multiple Choice Questions

Reading Passage 2 (Music: Language We all Speak):

Matching Heading,Matching features,Multiple Choice questions,

Reading Passage 1

Eco-Resort Management Practices

A. Ecotourism is often regarded as a form of nature-based tourism và has become an important alternative source of tourists. In addition to providing the traditional resort-leisure product, it has been argued that ecotourism resort management should have a particular focus on best-practice environmental management, và educational & interpretive components, & direct and indirect contributions to the conservation of the natural và cultural environment (Ayala, 1996).


*

B. Couran Cove Island Resort is a large integrated ecotourism-based resort located south of Brisbane on the Gold Coast, Queensland, & Australia. As the world’s population becomes increasingly urbanized, the demand for tourist attractions which are environmentally friendly, serene và offer amenities of a unique nature, has grown rapidly. Couran Cove Resort, which is one such tourist attractions, is located on South Stradbroke Island, occupying approximately 150 hectares of the island. South Stradbroke Island is separated from the mainland by the Broadwater, a stretch of sea 3 kilometres wide. More than a century ago, there was only one Stradbroke Island, and there were at least four aboriginal tribes living and hunting on the island. Regrettably, most of the original island dwellers were eventually killed by diseases such as tuberculosis, smallpox, và influenza by the end of the 19th century. The second shipwreck on the island in 1894, and the subsequent destruction of the ship (the Cambus Wallace) because it contained dynamite, caused a large crater in the sandhills on Stradbroke Island. Eventually, the ocean broke through the weakened landform and Stradbroke became two islands. Couran Cove Island Resort is built on one of the world’s few naturally-occurring sand lands, which is home to a wide range of plant communities and one of the largest remaining remnants of the rare Livistona Rainforest left on the Gold Coast. Many mangrove & rainforest areas & Melaleuca Wetlands on South Stradbroke Island (and in Queensland) have been cleared, drained or filled for residential, industrial, agricultural or urban development in the first half of the 20th century. Farmers and graziers finally abandoned South Stradbroke Island in 1939 because the vegetation và the soil conditions there were not suitable for agricultural activities.


Sustainable practices of courant cove resort

C. Being located on an offshore island, the resort is only accessible by means of water transportation. The resort provides hourly ferry service from the marina on the mainland to & from the island. Within the resort, transport modes include walking trails, bicycle tracks, và the beach train.The reception area is the counter of the siêu thị which has not changed in 8 years at least. The accommodation is an octagonal “Bure”. These are large rooms that are clean but! The equipment is tired and in some cases just working. Our ceiling fan hâm mộ only worked on high tốc độ for example. Beds are hard but clean, there are television, radio, an old air conditioner và a small fridge. These “Bures” are right on đứng đầu of each other and night noises vì chưng carry so be careful what you say và do. The only thing is the mosquitos but if you forget lớn bring mosquito repellant they sell some on the island.As an ecotourism-based resort, most of the planning & development of the attraction has been concentrated on the need to co-exist with the fragile natural environment of South Stradbroke Island lớn achieve sustainable development.

Water và energy management

D. South Stradbroke Island has groundwater at the centre of the island, which has a maximum height of 3 meters above sea level. The water supply is recharged by rainfall and is commonly known as an unconfined freshwater aquifer ( StK/1-). Couran Cove Island Resort obtains its water supply by tapping into this aquifer and extracting it via a bore system. Some of the problems which have threatened the island’s freshwater supply include pollution, contamination, và over-consumption. In order to lớn minimize some of these problems, all laundry activities are carried out on the mainland. The resort considers washing machines as onerous to the island’s freshwater supply, and that the detergents contain a high level of phosphates which are a major source of water pollution. The resort uses LPG-power generation rather than a diesel-powered plant for its energy supply, supplemented by a wind turbine, which has reduced greenhouse emissions by 70% of diesel-equivalent generation methods. Excess heat recovered from the generator is used to heat the swimming pool. Hot water in the eco-cabins và for some of the resort’s vehicles are solar-powered. Water-efficient fittings are also installed in showers & toilets. However, not all the appliances used by the resort are energy efficient, such as refrigerators. Visitors who stay at the resort are encouraged khổng lồ monitor their water & energy usage via the in-house television systems và are rewarded with prizes (such as a không tính phí return trip to the resort) accordingly if their usage cấp độ is low.

Concluding remarks

E. We examined a case study of good management practice & a pro-active sustainable tourism stance of an eco-resort. In three years of operation, Couran Cove Island Resort has won 23 international & national awards, including the 2001 Australian Tourism Award in the 4-Star Accommodation category. The resort has embraced và has effectively implemented contemporary environmental management practices. It has been argued that the successful implementation of the principles of sustainability should promote long-term social, economic và environmental benefits while ensuring and enhancing the prospects of continued viability for the tourism enterprise. Couran Cove Island Resort does not conform khổng lồ the characteristics of the Resort Development Spectrum, as proposed by Prideaux (2000). According lớn Prideaux, the resort should be at least at Phase 3 of the mã sản phẩm (the National tourism phase), which describes an integrated resort providing 3-4 star hotel-type accommodation. The primary tourist market in Phase 3 of the model consists mainly of interstate visitors. However, the number of interstate and international tourists visiting the resort is small, with the principal locals & residents from nearby towns và the Gold Coast region. The carrying capacity of Couran Cove does not seem khổng lồ be of any concern to lớn the Resort management. Given that it is a private commercial ecotourist enterprise, regulating the number of visitors khổng lồ the resort to minimize the damage done to lớn the natural environment on South Stradbroke Island is not a binding constraint. However, the Resort’s growth will eventually be constrained by its carrying capacity, và quantity control should be incorporated into the management strategy of the resort.

Questions 1 – 4.

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 1 -4 on your answer sheet.

1. The Stradbroke became two islands

A. By intended destruction of the ship of the Cambus Wallace

B. By an explosion of dynamite on a ship và following nature erosion

C. By the movement sandhills on Stradbroke Island

D. By the volcanic eruption on the island

2. Why are laundry activities for the resort carried out on the mainland?

A. In order lớn obtain its water supply via a bore system

B. In order to preserve the water & anti-pollution

C. In order khổng lồ save the cost of installing onerous washing machines

D. In order to lớn reduce the cấp độ of phosphates in the water around

3. What is the major water supplier in South Stradbroke Island is by

A. Desalinating the seawater

B. Collecting the rainfall

C. Transporting from the mainland

D. Boring groundwater

4. What is applied for heating water on Couran Cove Island Resort?

A. The LPG-power

B. A diesel-powered plant

C. The wind power

D. The solar-power

5. What does, as the managers of resorts believe, the prospective future focus on?

A. More awards for the resort’s accommodation

B. Sustainable administration and development in the long run

C. Economic và environmental benefits for the tourism enterprise

D. Successful implementation of the Resort Development Spectrum

Questions 6-10

Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet.

Being located away from the mainland, tourists can attain the resort only by 6…………………………………………………………. In regular service. Within the resort, transports include trails for walking or tracks for 7…………………………………….. & the beach train. The on-island equipment is old-fashioned which is barely working such as the 8……………………………………………. Overhead. There is a television, radio, an old 9……………………………………….. Và a small fridge. Và you can buy the repellant for 10……………………………………………… if you forget lớn bring some.

Questions 11-13

Choose three correct letters among A-E

Write your answers in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet.

What is true as lớn the contemporary situation of the Couran Cove Island Resort in the last paragraph?

A. Couran Cove Island Resort goes for more eco-friendly practices

B. The accommodation standard only conforms to lớn the Resort Development Spectrum of Phase 3

C. Couran Cove Island Resort should raise the accommodation lớn build more standard & build more facilities

D. The principal group visiting the resort is international tourists

E. Its carrying capacity will restrict the future business’ expansion

Also check :

Reading Passage 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on question 14-26, which are based on reading passage 2 on the following pages.

TV Addiction 1

A. The amount of time people spend watching television is astonishing. On average, individuals in the industrialized world devote three hours a day to lớn the pursuit —fully half of their leisure time, và more than on any single activity save work and sleep. At this rate, someone who lives to 75 would spend nine years in front of the tube. To some commentators, this devotion means simply that people enjoy TV và make a conscious decision lớn watch it. But if that is the whole story, why vì chưng so many people experience misgivings about how much they view? In Gallup polls in 1992 và 1999, two out of five adult respondents and seven out of 10 teenagers said they spent too much time watching TV. Other surveys have consistently shown that roughly 10 per cent of adults call themselves TV addicts.

B. to lớn study people’s reactions khổng lồ TV, researchers have experiments in which they have monitored the brain waves (using an electroencephalograph, or EEG) to lớn track behaviour và emotion in the normal course of life, as opposed to lớn the artificial conditions of the lab. Participants carried a beeper, & we signaled them six khổng lồ eight times a day, at random, over the period of a week; whenever they heard the beep, they wrote down what they were doing and how they were feeling using a standardized scorecard.

C. As one might expect, people who were watching TV when we beeped them reported feeling relaxed & passive. The EEG studies similarly show less mental stimulation, as measured by alpha brain-wave production, during viewing than during reading. What is more surprising is that the sense of relaxation ends when the set is turned off, but the feelings of passivity và lowered alertness continue. Survey participants say they have more difficulty concentrating after viewing than before. In contrast, they rarely indicate such difficulty after reading. After playing sports or engaging in hobbies, people report improvements in mood. After watching TV, people’s moods are about the same or worse than before. That may be because of viewers’ vague learned sense that they will feel less relaxed if they stop viewing. So they tend not to turn the set-off. Viewing begets more viewing which is the same as the experience of habit-forming drugs. Thus, the irony of TV: people watch a great giảm giá khuyến mãi longer than they plan to, even though prolonged viewing is less rewarding. In our ESM studies the longer people sat in front of the set, the less satisfaction they said they derived from it. For some, a twinge of unease or guilt that they aren’t doing something more productive may also accompany and depreciate the enjoyment of prolonged viewing. Researchers in Japan, the U.K., & the U.S. Have found that this guilt occurs much more among middle-class viewers than among less affluent ones.

D. What is it about TV that has such a hold on us? In part, the attraction seems to lớn spring from our biological ‘orienting response/ First described by Ivan Pavlov in 1927, the orienting response is our instinctive visual or auditory reaction to any sudden or novel stimulus. It is part of our evolutionary heritage, a built-in sensitivity to lớn movement & potential predatory threats. In 1986 Byron Reeves of Stanford University, Esther Thorson of the University of Missouri và their colleagues began to lớn study whether the simple formal features of television—cuts, edits, zooms, pans, sudden noises — activate the orienting response, thereby keeping attention on the screen. By watching how brain waves were affected by formal features, the researchers concluded that these stylistic tricks can indeed trigger involuntary responses & ‘derive their attentional value through the evolutionary significance of detecting movement… It is the form, not the content, of television that is unique.

E. The natural attraction to lớn television’s sound và the light starts very early in life. Dafna Lemish of Tel Aviv University has described babies at six khổng lồ eight weeks attending to television. We have observed slightly older infants who, when lying on their backs on the floor, crane their necks around 180 degrees lớn catch what light through yonder window breaks. This inclination suggests how deeply rooted the orienting response is.

F. The Experience Sampling Method permitted us khổng lồ look closely at most every domain name of everyday life: working, eating, reading, talking to lớn friends, playing a sport, and so on. We found that heavy viewers report feeling significantly more anxious & less happy than light viewers bởi in unstructured situations, such as doing nothing, daydreaming or waiting in line. The difference widens when the viewer is alone. Subsequently, Robert D. Mcllwraith of the University of Manitoba extensively studied those who called themselves TV addicts on surveys. On a measure called the Short Imaginal Processes Inventory (SIPI), he found that the self-described addicts are more easily bored and distracted and have poorer attentional control than the non-addicts. The addicts said they used TV lớn distract themselves from unpleasant thoughts & to fill time. Other studies over the years have shown that heavy viewers are less likely khổng lồ participate in community activities và sports & are more likely to be obese than moderate viewers or non-viewers.

G. More than 25 years ago psychologist Tannis M. MacBeth Williams of the University of British Columbia studied a mountain community that had no television until cable finally arrived. Over time, both adults and children in the town became less creative in problem-solving, less able to lớn persevere at tasks, and less tolerant of unstructured time.

H. Nearly 40 years ago Gary A. Steiner of the University of Chicago collected fascinating individual accounts of families whose set had broken. In experiments, families have volunteered or been paid to stop viewing, typically for a week or a month. Some fought, verbally và physically. In a đánh giá of these cold-turkey studies, Charles Winick of the thành phố University of new york concluded: ‘The first three or four days for most persons were the worst, even in many homes where the viewing was minimal & where there were other ongoing activities. In over half of all the households, during these first few days of loss, the regular routines were disrupted, family members had difficulties in dealing with the newly available time, anxiety and aggressions were expressed. By the second week, a move toward adaptation lớn the situation was common. ‘Unfortunately, researchers have yet to flesh out these anecdotes; no one has systematically gathered statistics on the prevalence of these withdrawal symptoms.

I. Even though TV does seem khổng lồ meet the criteria for substance dependence, not all researchers would go so far as to gọi TV addictive. Mcllwraith said in 1998 that ‘displacement of other activities by television may be socially significant but still fall short of the clinical requirement of significant impairment.’ He argued that a new category of ‘TV addiction’ may not be necessary if heavy viewing stems from conditions such as depression & social phobia. Nevertheless, whether or not we formally diagnose someone as TV-dependent, millions of people sense that they cannot readily control the amount of television they watch.

Questions 14-18

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage?

In boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE, if the statement is trueFALSE, if the statement is falseNOT GIVEN, if the information is not given in the passage

14. Study shows that males are more likely to be addicted to TV than females.

15. Greater improvements in mood are experienced after watching TV than playing sports.

16. TV addiction works in similar ways as drugs.

17. It is reported that people’s satisfaction is in proportion to lớn the time they spend watching TV.

18. Middle-class viewers are more likely to feel guilty about watching TV than the poor.

Questions 19-23

Look at the following researchers (Questions 19-23) and the menu of statements below.

Match each researcher with the correct statements.

Write the correct letter A-H in boxes 19-23 on your answer sheets.

19. Byron Reeves và Esther Thorson

20. Dafna Lemish

21. Robert D. Mcllwraith

22. Tannis M. MacBeth Williams

23. Charles Winick

List of statements

A. Audiences would get hypnotized from viewing too much television.

B. People have been sensitive to lớn TV signals from a younger age.

C. People are less likely to accomplish their work with television.

D. A handful of studies have attempted lớn study other types of media addiction.

E. The addictive nguồn of television could probably minimize the problems.

F. Various truyền thông formal characters stimulate people’s reaction on the screen.

G. People who believe themselves lớn be TV addicts are less likely to lớn join in the group activities.

H. It is hard for people to lớn accept life without a TV at the beginning.

Questions 24-26

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write the correct letter in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.

24. People in the industrialized world

A. Devote ten hours watching TV on average.

B. Spend more time on TV than other entertainment.

C. Gọi themselves TV addicts.

D. Working best.

25. When compared with light viewers, heavy viewers

A. Lượt thích playing sport more than reading.

B. Feels relaxed after watching TV.

C. Spends more time daydreaming.

D. Is more easily bored while waiting in line.

26. Which of the following statements is true about the family experiment?

A. Not all subjects participate in the experiment for free.

B. There has been a complete gathered data.

C. People are prevented from other activities during the experiment.

D. People cannot adapt lớn the situation until the end

Reading Passage 3

Question 27 – 31

Reading Passage 3 has five sections A-E.

Choose the correct heading for each section from the danh sách of headings below.

Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

Animals sometimes make music.Recent research on musicThe culture embedded in musicHistorical theories reviewCommunication in music with animalsThe contrast between music and languageQuestions on a biological links with human và musicMusic is good for babies.

27. Section A

28. Section B

29. Section C

30. Section D

31. Section E

Music: Language We All Speak

A. Music is one of the human species’ relatively few universal abilities. Without formal training, any individual, from Stone Age tribesman khổng lồ suburban teenager can recognize music and, in some fashion, to make it. Why this should be so is a mystery. After all, music isn’t necessary for getting through the day, và if it aids in reproduction, it does so only in highly indirect ways. Language, by contrast, is also everywhere- but for more obvious reasons. With language, you & the members of your tribe can organize a migration across Africa, build reed boats and cross the seas, và communicate at night even when you can’t see each other. Modern culture, in all its technological extravagance, springs directly from the human talent for manipulating symbols & syntax. Scientists have always been intrigued by the connection between music and language. Yet over the years, words and melody have acquired a vastly different status in the lab & the seminar room. While language has long been considered essential to lớn unlocking the mechanisms of human intelligence, music is generally treated as an evolutionary frippery-mere “auditory cheesecake,” as the Harvard cognitive scientist Steven Pinker puts it.

B. But thanks lớn a decade-long wave of neuroscience research, that tune is changing. A flurry of recent publications suggests that language và music may equally be able lớn tell us who we are và where we’re from – not just emotionally, but biologically. In July, the journal Nature Neuroscience devoted a special issue to lớn the topic. & in an article in the August 6 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience, David Schwartz, Catherine Howe, and Dale Purves of Duke University argued that the sounds of music & the sounds of language are intricately connected. To grasp the originality of this idea, it’s necessary to realize two things about how music has traditionally been understood. First, musicologists have long emphasized that while each culture stamps a special identity onto its music; the music itself has some universal qualities. For example, in virtually all cultures sound is divided into some or all of the 12 intervals that biến hóa the chromatic scale – that is, the scale represented by the keys on a piano. For centuries, observers have attributed this preference for certain combinations of tones to lớn the mathematical properties of sound itself. Some 2,500 years ago, Pythagoras was the first to cảnh báo a direct relationship between the harmoniousness of a tone combination & the physical dimensions of the object that produced it. For example, a plucked string will always play an octave lower than a similar string half its size, and a fifth lower than a similar string two-thirds it’s the length. This liên kết between simple ratios và harmony has influenced music theory ever since.

C. This music-is-moth idea is often accompanied by the notion that music formally speaking at least, exists apart from the world in which it was created. Writing recently in The New York review of Books, pianist and critic Charles Rosen discussed the long-standing notion that while painting & sculpture reproduce at least some aspects of the natural world, và writing describes thoughts and feelings we are all familiar with, music is entirely abstracted from the world in which we live. Neither idea is right, according to David Schwartz và his colleagues. Human musical preferences are fundamentally shaped not by elegant algorithms or ratios but by the messy sounds of real life, & of speech in particular -which in turn is shaped by our evolutionary heritage.” The explanation of music, lượt thích the explanation of any product of the mind, must be rooted in biology, not in numbers per se,” says Schwartz.

Schwartz, Howe, & Purves analyzed a vast selection of speech sounds from a variety of languages lớn reveal the underlying patterns common lớn all utterances. In order to lớn focus only on the raw sound, they discarded all theories about speech & meaning và sliced sentences into random bites. Using a database of over 100,000 brief segments of speech, they noted which frequency had the greatest emphasis in each sound. The resulting set of frequencies, they discovered, corresponded closely lớn the chromatic scale. In short, the building blocks of music are lớn be found in speech

Far from being abstract, music presents a strange analogue khổng lồ the patterns created by the sounds of speech. “Music, like the visual arts, is rooted in our experience of the natural world,” says Schwartz. “It emulates our sound environment in the way that visual arts emulate the visual environment. ” In music, we hear the echo of our basic sound-making instrument- the vocal tract. The explanation for human music is simple; still than Pythagoras’s mathematical equations. We lượt thích the sounds that are familiar to us- specifically, we lượt thích sounds that remind us of us.

This brings up some chicken-or-egg evolutionary questions. It may be that music imitates speech directly, the researchers say, in which case it would seem that language evolved first. It’s also conceivable that music came first và language is in effect an Imitation of a tuy vậy – that in everyday speech we hit the musical notes we especially like. Alternately, it may be that music imitates the general products of the human sound-making system, which just happens to lớn be mostly speech. “We can’t know this,” says Schwartz. “What we vì know is that they both come from the same system, và it is this that shapes our preferences.”

D.Schwartz’s study also casts light on the long-running question of whether animals understand or appreciate music. Despite the apparent abundance of “music” in the natural world- birdsong, whale song, wolf howls, synchronized chimpanzee hooting previous studies have found that many laboratory animals don’t show a great affinity for the human variety of music-making. Marc Hauser and Josh McDermott of Harvard argued in the July issue of Nature Neuroscience that animals don’t create or perceive music the way we do. The act that laboratory monkeys can show recognition of human tunes is evidence, they say, of shared general features of the auditory system, not any specific chimpanzee musical ability. As for birds, those most musical beasts, they generally recognize their own tunes – a narrow repertoire – but don’t generate novel melodies as we do. There are no avian Mozarts.

But what’s been played khổng lồ the animals, Schwartz notes, is human music. If animals evolve preferences for sound as we do – based upon the soundscape in which they live – then their “music” would be fundamentally different from ours. In the same way, our scales derive from human utterances, a cat’s idea of a good tune would derive from yowls and meows. Khổng lồ demonstrate that animals don’t appreciate sounds the way we do, we’d need evidence that they don’t respond to “music” constructed from their own sound environment.

E.

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No matter how the connection between language và music is parsed, what is apparent is that our sense of music, even our love for it, is as deeply rooted in our biology & in our brains as language is. This is most obvious with babies, says Sandra Trehub at the University of Toronto, who also published a paper in the Nature Neuroscience special issue.

For babies, music và speech are on a continuum. Mothers use musical speech khổng lồ “regulate infants’ emotional states.” Trehub says. Regardless of what language they speak, the voice all mothers use with babies is the same: “something between speech và song.” This kind of communication “puts the baby in a trance-like state, which may proceed khổng lồ sleep or extended periods of rapture.” So if the babies of the world could understand the latest research on language và music, they probably wouldn’t be very surprised. The upshot, says Trehub, is that music maybe even more of a necessity than we realize.

Questions 32-38

Look at the following people and list of statements below.

Match each person with the correct statement.

Write the correct letter A-G in boxes 32-38 on your answer sheet.

List of statements

Music exists outside of the world in which it is createdMusic has a common feature though cultural influences affectHumans need musicMusic priority connects khổng lồ the disordered sound aroundDiscovery of mathematical musical foundationMusic is not treated equally well compared with a languageHumans và monkeys have similar traits in perceiving sound

32. Steven Pinker

33. Musicologists

34. Greek philosopher Pythagoras

35. Schwartz, Howe, và Purves

36. Marc Hauser và Josh McDermott

37. Charles Rosen

38. Sandra Trehub

Questions 39-40

Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D

Write your answers in boxes 39-40 on your answer sheet.

39. Why was the study of animal music uncertain?

A. Animals don’t have the same auditory system as humans.

B. Experiments on animal’s music are limited.

C. Tunes are impossible for the animal to make up.

D. Animals don’t have the spontaneous ability for the tests.

40. What is the main subject of this passage?

A. Language and psychology.

B. Music formation.

C. Role of music in human society.

D. Music experiments for animals.

Answers


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Reading Passage 1

1.

Answer: B

Question Type: Multiple Choice Questions

Answer location: Paragraph B, line 6

Answer explanation: In the said paragraph, it is mentioned that “regrettably, most of the original island dwellers were eventually killed by diseases such as tuberculosis, smallpox & influenza by the kết thúc of the 19thThe second ship wreak on the island in 1894, và thesubsequent destruction of the ship (theCambusWallace) because it contained dynamite, caused a large crater in the sandhills on Stradbroke Island.” From this information, we can infer that due lớn the destruction of the ship by an explosion of dynamite (crater: a large bowl-shaped cavity in the ground or on a celestial object, typically one caused by an explosion) on a ship và following nature erosion caused Stradbroke lớn became two islands

2.

Answer: B

Question Type: Multiple Choice Questions

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 4

Answer explanation: The answer is clearly mentioned in the said paragraph và line. You must lưu ý the paraphrasing here. In the passage, it is said that “some of the problems which have threatened the island’s freshwater supply include pollution, contamination, and over-consumption.In order lớn minimise some of these problems, all laundry activities are carried out on the mainland.” Some of the islands are facing issues of pollution, contamination, and over-consumption. In order lớn preserve the water and for anti-pollution, laundry activities are carried out on the mainland

3.

Answer: B

Question Type: Multiple Choice Questions

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 1

Answer explanation: In the said paragraph, you can refer to, “South Stradbroke Island has groundwater at the centre of the island, which has a maximum height of 3 meters above sea level. The water supply is recharged by rainfall và is commonly known as an unconfined freshwater aquifer.” The water supply in South Stradbroke Island is recharged by (collecting) rainfall.

4.

Answer: D

Question Type: Multiple Choice Questions

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 9

Answer explanation: You can chú ý the paraphrasing here. In the passage, it states that “hot water in the -cabins & for some of the resort’s vehicles are solar-powered. Water efficient fittings are also installed in showers và toilets.” Couran Cove Island Resort has applied solar power nguồn in order khổng lồ heat the water.

5.

Answer: B

Question Type: Multiple Choice Questions

Answer location: Paragraph D, line 4

Answer explanation: Few lines in the said paragraph convey that “it has been argued that the successful implementation of the principles of sustainability should promote long-term social, economic và environmental benefits while ensuring và enhancing the prospects of continued viability for the tourism enterprise.” The managers of the resorts have argued that successful implementation of the principles of sustainability (sustainable administration) anddevelopment can promote a prospective future focus on long-term (long run).

6.

Answer: ferry

Question Type: Summary Completion

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 1

Answer explanation: The opening line of paragraph C suggests that “being located on an offshore island, the resort is only accessible by means of water transportation. The resort provides hourly ferry service from the marina on the mainland to và from the island. Within the resort, transport modes include walking trails,bicycle tracks & the beach train.” Since resorts are located on offshores (situated away from the large toàn thân of water; mainland) they provide transportation facilities such as ferry from the marina on the mainland to & from the island.

7.

Answer: bicycle

Question Type: Summary Completion

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 2

Answer explanation: If you read thoroughly, there’s a line in the said paragraph that describes “the resort provides hourly ferry service from the marina on the mainland to và from the island. Within the resort, transport modes include walking trails, bicycle tracks, & the beach train.” From this information, we can infer that resorts provide transport modes which include trails for walking and track for bicycles.

8.

Answer: ceiling fan/fan

Question Type: Summary Completion

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 5

Answer explanation: If you read thoroughly, there’s a line that claims “these are large rooms that are clean but! The equipment is tired và in some cases just working. Our ceiling fan hâm mộ only worked on high tốc độ for example.” The on-island equipment is old-fashioned which is barely working ( in some cases just working) such as the ceiling tín đồ only working at high speed.

9.

Answer: air conditioner

Question Type: Summary Completion

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 6

Answer explanation: A line in the passage mentions that “beds are hard but clean, there is television, radio, an old air conditioner và a small fridge.” The room of the resort had facilities like television, radio, small fridge và old air conditioner.

10.

Answer: Mosquitos/Mosquito

Question Type: Summary Completion

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 8

Answer explanation: In the said paragraph, you can point out that “the only thing is the mosquitos but if you forget to bring mosquito repellant they sell some on the island.” The tác giả mentions that the thing that can concern guests is mosquitos, và in case guests forget to carry repellant they can buy it on the island.

11.

Answer: A (A, C, E : in any order)

Question Type: Multiple Choice Questions

Answer location: Paragraph D, line 3

Answer explanation: If you observe, in the said paragraph it is given that “the resort has embraced and has effectively implemented contemporary environmental management practices.” In the concluding passage, we can observe that Couran Cove Island Resort goes for more eco-friendly practices, we can infer that from the information where it is given that they have opted for contemporary environmental management practices.

12.

Answer: C (A, C, E : in any order)

Question Type: Multiple Choice Questions

Answer location: Paragraph D, line 6

Answer explanation: Paragraph D puts forward the information that “according to lớn Prideaux,the resort should be at least at Phase 3 of the model (the National tourism phase), which describes an integrated resort providing 3-4 star hotel-type accommodation.” From the concluding passage, we can also deduce that it is suggested that Couran Cove Island Resort should raise the accommodation standard (should be at least at Phase 3 of the model) và build more facilities.

13.

Answer: E (A, C, E : in any order)

Question Type: Multiple Choice Questions

Answer location: Paragraph D, last line

Answer explanation: If you observe, the answer is clearly mentioned in the said paragraph và line “however, the Resort’s growth will eventually be constrained by its carrying capacity, và quantity control should be incorporated in the management strategy of the resort.” Hence, we can conclude that resort’s future business’ expansion (growth) will get constrained (restricted) by its carrying capacity.

Reading Passage 2

14.

Answer: NOT GIVEN

Question Type: True/False/Not Given Questions

Answer location: N/A

Answer explanation: None of the passages confirms or denies that the study shows that males are more likely to lớn be addicted to lớn TV than females.

15.

Answer: FALSE

Question Type: True/False/Not Given Questions

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 6

Answer explanation: If you read thoroughly, a line in the passage specifies that “after playing sports or engaging in hobbies, people report improvements in mood. After watching TV, people’s moods are about the same or worse than before.” Since people’s moods are about the same or worse after watching TV & it is observed that there is improvement in mood after playing sports or engaging in hobbies we can deduce that the information given in the question contradicts the information of the passage.

16.

Answer: TRUE

Question Type: True/False/Not Given Questions

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 8

Answer explanation: If you read thoroughly, the author in the given paragraph mentions that “viewing begets more viewing which is the same as the experience of habit-forming drugs. Thus, the irony of TV: people watch a great deal longer than they plan to, even though prolonged viewing is less rewarding.” Since it is mentioned that viewing is the same as habit-forming drugs, we can infer that TV addiction works in similar ways as drugs.

17.

Answer: FALSE

Question Type: True/False/Not Given Questions

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 9

Answer explanation: In the said paragraph, refer that, “thus, the irony of TV: people watch a great giảm giá khuyến mãi longer than they plan to, even though prolonged viewing is less rewarding. In our ESM studies the longer people sat in front of the set, the less satisfaction they said they derived from it.” Since the author claims that the longer the people sat in front of the TV the less satisfied they were. Hence, we can deduce that the information given in the question contradicts the information of the passage.

18.

Answer: TRUE

Question Type: True/False/Not Given Questions

Answer location: Paragraph C, 2nd last line

Answer explanation: The answer is clearly mentioned in the said paragraph và line. In the passage, it is said that “for some, a twinge of unease or guilt that they aren’t doing something more productive may also accompany & depreciate the enjoyment of prolonged viewing. Researchers in Japan, the U.K., and the U.S. Have found that this guilt occurs much more among middle-class viewers than among less affluent ones.” The author states that middle-class viewers often feel guilty for not doing something more productive when they watch TV for a prolonged period.

19.

Answer: F

Question Type: Matching features

Answer location: Paragraph D, line 4

Answer explanation: Paragraph D suggests that “in 1986 Byron Reeves of Stanford University, Esther Thorson of the University of Missouri & their colleagues began lớn study whether the simple formal features of television—cuts, edits, zooms, pans, sudden noises — activate the orienting response, thereby keeping attention on the screen.” Byron Reeves & Esther Thorson studied various characters (features) lượt thích cuts, edits, zooms, pans, sudden noises that stimulate (activate the orienting response) people’s attention (to the screen).

20.

Answer: B

Question Type: Matching features

Answer location: Paragraph E, line 2

Answer explanation: In the reference paragraph, the author mentions that “Dafna Lemish of Tel Aviv University has described babies at six to lớn eight weeks attending khổng lồ television.” Here, Dafna Lemish by saying that babies at six lớn eight weeks attend to television suggests that people have been sensitive to TV signals from a younger age.

21.

Answer: G

Question Type: Matching features

Answer location: Paragraph F, line 4

Answer explanation: Robert D. Mcllwraith of the University of Manitoba extensively studied those who called themselves TV addicts on surveys. “Other studies over the years have shown that heavy viewers are less likely to participate in community activities and sports và are more likely khổng lồ be obese than moderate viewers or non-viewers.” Hence, heavy viewers are less likely lớn participate in community activities and sports (group activities).

22.

Answer: C

Question Type: Matching features

Answer location: Paragraph G, line 2

Answer explanation: Few lines in the said paragraph discuss that “over time, both adults & children in the town became less creative in problem-solving, less able lớn persevere at tasks, và less tolerant of unstructured time.” According lớn Tannis M. MacBeth Williams, from the time TV was introduced to the community, people have become less creative. Hence, we can infer that television can cause people to lớn become less accomplished in their work.

23.

Answer: H

Question Type: Matching features

Answer location: Paragraph H, line 3

Answer explanation: If you read thoroughly, a line in the said paragraph discusses that “in a đánh giá of these cold-turkey studies, Charles Winick of the city University of new york concluded: ‘The first three or four days for most persons were the worst, even in many homes where the viewing was minimal & where there were other ongoing activities.” Since Charles Winick discovered that people are not able to survive even three or four days without TV we can infer that it is hard for people to lớn accept life without a TV.

24.

Answer: B

Question Type: Multiple Choice Questions

Answer location: Paragraph A, line 2

Answer explanation: A line in the given paragraph suggests that “0n average, individuals in the industrialized world devote three hours a day lớn the pursuit —fully half of their leisure time, and more than on any single activity save work & sleep.” In the industrialized world, people spend more time on TV than any other activity or entertainment.

25.

Answer: D

Question Type: Multiple Choice Questions

Answer location: Paragraph F, line 2

Answer explanation: The answer is clearly mentioned in the said paragraph & line. You must cảnh báo the paraphrasing here. In the passage, it is said that “we found that heavy viewers report feeling significantly more anxious & less happy than light viewers bởi in unstructured situations, such as doing nothing, daydreaming or waiting in line.” Hence, the given information implies that heavy viewers feel more anxious and get bored easily while waiting in line as compared khổng lồ light viewers.

26.

Answer: A

Question Type: Multiple Choice Questions

Answer location: Paragraph H, line 2

Answer explanation: A line in the given paragraph suggests that “in experiments, families have volunteered or been paid to stop viewing, typically for a week or a month.” As it is mentioned that volunteer families were paid khổng lồ participate, we can infer that not all subjects participate in the experiment for free.

Reading Passage 3

27. Vi

Answer: vi

Question Type: Matching Headings

Answer location: Paragraph A, line 4

Answer explanation: If you observe, the answer is clearly mentioned in the said paragraph và line “after all, music isn’t necessary for getting through the day, & if it sida in reproduction, it does so only in highly indirect ways. Language, by contrast, is also everywhere – but for reasons that are more obvious.” This passage discusses the contrast between language và music, we can infer that the appropriate title would be the contrast between music & language

28.

Answer: iv

Question Type: Matching Headings

Answer location: Paragraph B, 3rd last line

Answer explanation: Paragraph B puts forward the information that “some 2,500 years ago, Pythagoraswas the first to chú ý a direct relationship between the harmoniousness of a tone combination và the physical dimensions of the object that produced it.” Since this passage discusses the combination of tones và mathematical properties around 2,500 years ago, the appropriate title for this paragraph would be historical theories review.

29.

Answer: ii

Question Type: Matching Headings

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 6

Answer explanation: In the said paragraph, you can refer to, “Schwartz, Howe, và Purvesanalysed a vast selection of speech sounds from a variety of languages to lớn reveal the underlying patterns common to lớn all utterances. In order khổng lồ focus only on the raw sound, they discarded all theories about speech và meaning & sliced sentences into random bites. “Music, lượt thích the visual arts, is rooted in our experience of the natural world,” says Schwartz.” From this statement, we can infer that Schwartz, Howe, và Purves are the researchers who have conducted research on music và how speech and music are related.

30.

Answer: v

Question Type: Matching Headings

Answer location: Paragraph D, line

Answer explanation: In the said paragraph, you can refer to, “Marc Hauser và Josh McDermott of Harvard argued in the July issue of Nature Neuroscience that animals don’t create or perceive music the way we do. The fact that laboratory monkeys can show recognition of human tunes is evidence, they say, of shared general features of the auditory system, not any specific chimpanzee musical ability.” This passage discusses how animals respond lớn music. Thus, we can deduce that the appropriate title for the paragraph would be communication in music with animals.

31.

Answer: vii

Question Type: Matching Headings

Answer location: Paragraph E, line 1

Answer explanation: If you read thoroughly, there’s a line in the said paragraph that describes “no matter how the connection between language & music is parsed, what is apparent is that our sense of music, even our love for it, is as deeply rooted in our biology và in our brains as language is.” This statement confirms the author’s opinion that the connection between language and music is deeply rooted (linked) in our biology.

32.

Answer: F

Question Type: Matching features

Answer location: Paragraph A, last line

Answer explanation: A line in the passage mentions that “while language has long been considered essential to unlocking the mechanisms of human intelligence, music is generally treated as an evolutionary frippery – mere “auditory cheesecake”, as the Harvard cognitive scientist Steven Pinker puts it.” Thus, Steven Pinker is trying lớn convey that language is considered essential for human intelligence, và music, on the other hand, is considered evolutionary, which means he thinks music is not treated equally well compared with language.

33.

Answer: B

Question Type: Matching features

Answer location: Paragraph B, line 6

Answer explanation: In the said paragraph, you can point out that “first, musicologists have long emphasised that while each culture stamps a special identity onto its music, music itself has some universal qualities.” Musicologists believe that music has some universal qualities (features).

34.

Answer: E

Question Type: Matching features

Answer location: Paragraph B, 2nd last line

Answer explanation: Greek philosopher Pythagoras in paragraph B puts forward the information that “some 2,500 years ago, Pythagoras was the first to chú ý a direct relationship between the harmoniousness of a tone combination and the physical dimensions of the object that produced it.” Hence, it is Pythagoras’s discovery that establishes a mathematical musical foundation.

35.

Answer: D

Question Type: Matching features

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 3

Answer explanation: Few lines in said paragraph discuss that“Neither idea is right, according to lớn David Schwartz and his colleagues. Human musical preferences are fundamentally shaped not by elegant algorithms or ratios but by the messy sounds of real life, & of speech in particular -which in turn is shaped by our evolutionary heritage.” The explanation of music, lượt thích the explanation of any product of the mind, must be rooted in biology, not in numbers per se,” says Schwartz."” as it talks about the messy sounds of real life, we can infer music priority connects lớn the disordered sound around.

36.

Answer: G

Question Type: Matching features

Answer location: Paragraph D, line 3

Answer explanation: Paragraph D intimates that “Marc Hauser và Josh McDermott of Harvard argued in the July issue of Nature Neuroscience that animals don’t create or perceive music the way we do. The fact that laboratory monkeys can show recognition of human tunes is evidence, they say, of shared general features of the auditory system, not any specific chimpanzee musical ability.” Marc Hauser & Josh McDermott bring forth the idea that monkeys can show recognition of human tunes, which means they have similar traits in perceiving sound.

37.

Answer: A

Question Type: Matching features

Answer location: Paragraph C, line 2

Answer explanation: Few lines in said paragraph discusses that “writing recently in The New York đánh giá of Books, pianist and critic Charles Rosen discussed the long-standing notion that while painting & sculpture reproduce at least some aspects of the natural world, & writing describes thoughts & feelings we are all familiar with, music is entirely abstracted from the world in which we live.” Thus, according to Charles Rosen music is entirely abstracted (outside of the world) from the world in which we live (which it is created).

38.

Answer: C

Question Type: Matching features

Answer location: Paragraph C, last line

Answer explanation: The tác giả in the concluding line suggests that “so if the babies of the world could understand the latest research on language & music, they probably wouldn’t be very surprised. The upshot, says , is that music may be even more of a necessity than we realise.” As Sandra Trehub states that music may be even more of a necessity than we realise, we can infer that humans need music.

39.

Answer: B

Question Type: Multiple Choice Questions

Answer location: Paragraph D, last line

Answer explanation: Paragraph D intimates that“to demonstrate that animals don’t appreciate sounds the way we do, we’d need evidence that they don’t respond to lớn “music” constructed from their own sound environment. “Hence, the reason study of animal music is uncertain is because we would require evidences of how they respond to music.

Answer: C

Question Type: Multiple Choice Questions

Answer location: Complete paragraph

Answer explanation: This passage discusses how language is distinct from music và how music plays a vital role in human society.